Communicating Food Safety: The Fundamentals
It’s Fall! Here in the Midwest, we know it is a new season with cooler temperatures and changing colors of leaves.
In September, our partners at FoodHandler had a webinar about communication and ways to effectively message about food safety. Dr. Susan Arendt (their former colleague at Iowa State University) did a wonderful job of explaining the importance of effective communications to achieve food safety. You can check out the archived webinar here.
She reinforced the essential elements of good communication. Just for fun, we googled "communication" and there were plenty of resources. These included definitions, types, channels and barriers. Academic studies abound along with workshops on developing skills and tips for improvement.
It boils down to effective messaging, meaning the receiver understands the intention. Like so many things, however, the devil is in the details.
Learning about Communication
So first, what is communication? Merriam-Webster says it's “a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behavior." In essence, communication is the transfer of a message. We like thinking about messaging from the journalistic framework of:
- Who (Who is the audience?)
- What and Why (What is the message and why should it matter?)
- When and Where (time and place of the communication)
- How (method to be used in message transfer)
Crafting the message effectively means using words and language appropriate for the audience. It is important to identify the intended receiver. While a particular group may understand common terms and language, avoiding technical jargon will appeal to a broader audience.
You might remember having a hard time following your children’s teachers’ comments at conferences because they used their everyday jargon of education terms that sounded like a foreign language.
For your restaurant, you might think of your audiences as those “internal” to the operation, such as staff, suppliers or others who understand the day-to-day operations, and those “external” to the workplace who may not have experienced the wonderful world of foodservice from the operational end, such as customers. Communicating to these two audiences requires different approaches. Inclusion of why the message is important, or perhaps why it matters to the audience, will aid in them receiving the information.
Selecting the Best Approach
While words are important, use of graphics, photos or icons can be effective across diverse audiences—those internal and external to the operation—but also those with different language and literacy skills. In the world of food processing and foodservice, research has found a picture is indeed “worth a 1,000 words.” The key is selecting the best approach for the message receiver.
The challenge, of course, is lack of control over how the receiver “gets it.” And that is often tied to the delivery, or the "when, where and how." A raised voice conveys an emotional response, typically anger or excitement, whereas communicating with a smile will lead to a more positive response.
You all know that we communicate with words (verbally and in written form), but other parts of sending the message include body language (a.k.a. nonverbal communications). Teenagers' eye rolls are a great example. Time and place of transmitting the message are also important considerations. We all learned in Supervision 101 that it is best to be discreet when coaching staff and giving corrective action. No one likes to be called on the carpet in front of others, especially their peers.
You might recall the popular book from the 1990s called Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus in which author John Gray posits that each gender has its own customs and styles of communicating.
The key takeaway from the conversations resulting from this publication is that there is not a “one size fits all” approach to communication. Managers in foodservice need to use a variety of techniques and styles to get their messages across to different audiences. It is not easy.
Tools for Effective Communication
In the next article, FoodHandler will give some examples of effective communication about fundamental practices that protect the safety of food in operations. In the meantime, managers might check out this checklist to reflect their own communication style.
It is part of a module developed at Iowa State University with a USDA grant (led by Dr. Arendt) as a result of a national sample of foodservice workers telling us why they don’t always practice safe food handling practices. Some of the reasons, you guessed it, were ineffective and inconsistent communications by managers.
Here is a blueprint to aid in crafting effective messages for audiences both internal and external to the foodservice industry. Effective communication is a key to developing and maintaining a culture of food safety in your operation. Effective communication can prevent a lot of potential problems from becoming a reality. Use your words thoughtfully and consider how your message will come across to the intended audience,